Topics for this course
Parts of Speech
Words are classified according to their functions in sentences. They are: 1) Noun, 2) Pronoun, 3) Adjective, 4) Determiner, 5) Verb, 6) Adverb, 7) Prepo- sition, 8) Conjunction and 9) Interjection
Determiners and Articles
The sentence structure defines the position of the words (all parts of speech) in the sentences.
Basic Sentence Structure
Structural Elements / Parts of Sentence Structure
The basic sentence structure is discussed above. Various elements of sentence structures are explained below.
A phrase is a group of words without verb but with some meaning.Any phrase will be functionally similar to a noun, adjective or adverb and called noun phrase, adjective phrase and adverb phrase respectively. For example, if a phrase functions like a noun, it is called a noun phrase and so on.
Types of Phrases
Phrasal Verbs, Idioms, Proverbs and Quotations
Functional Sentence Types
Sentences can be classified according to their functions.
Types Of Sentences
Direct Speech and Indirect (Reported) Speech
Direct Speech and Indirect Speech are two different ways of writing/telling to others at a later point of time what somebody has told earlier.
Direct Speech and Indirect Speech
Punctuation is a set of symbols used to mark the different parts of sentences like the beginning of a sentence, end of a sentence, order of words, etc. and also to change the stress/rhythm of reading the sentences. Common punctuation marks/symbols include comma (,), period (full stop) (.), apostrophe (`), quotation mark (" "), question mark (?), exclamation mark (!), bracket (), dash (--), hyphen (-), ellipsis (…), colon (:) and semicolon (;). For example, the period (.) is used for terminating the declarative sentences, question mark (?) for interrogative sentences and exclamation mark (!) for exclamatory sentences as illustrated in the above examples of functional sentence types.
Compound Words and Collocations
When two or more words are combined together to form a single word, it is called a compound word. For example, 'news- paper' is a compound noun formed by combining the words 'news' and 'paper'. The compound words can be any parts of speech. If two or more words are combined with hyphens to form adjectives specifically, they are called compound adjectives as in 'a thickly-populated city'. Similarly, compound adverbs are also formed by combining words with hyphen as in 'You can pay your loan interest- free now.' Collocation: If two or more words tend to always occur or belong together, it is called a collocation. For example, we always say 'beautiful girl' and 'handsome boy' but not 'beautiful boy' or 'handsome girl' though they also would mean the same thing and are grammatically correct.
Other Word Groups/Type
We have learned that words are classified into dif- ferent parts of speech, namely noun, pronoun, verb, etc. according to the similarity in their function in sentences. Words can be classified into other groups also based on some other similarities like their position, meaning, properties, etc. Such groups of words include prefixes, suffixes, synonyms, antonyms, hyponym, hyper- nym, holonym, meronym, homonym, homograph, homophone, anagram, alpha- gram and palindrome. For example, 'inter' is a prefix because it is added to another word at the begin- ning to change the meaning of the original word as in 'interschool' which means 'between/among schools'. Similarly, 'ess' is a suffix, added at the end of another word, to form nouns of females as in 'poetess and lioness'. Synonyms are the words with same/similar meanings like 'box, case, chest, container, crate, pack, package, packet and trunk' while antonyms are words with opposite meanings like 'pass, success and triumph' to 'failure'.